What is Communication?


 Speech is the verbal means of communicating and consists of; 

  • articulation - how speech sounds are made (correct pronunciation of sounds) 
  • voice - the use of the vocal cords and breathing to produce sound (loss of voice, hoarseness)
  • fluency - the rhythm of speech (stuttering, stammering)



Receptive Language refers to how well we understand others.  More specifically, how well we attend to, remember, process and effectively use information as it is presented to us.

Expressive Language refers to how well we are able to share our thoughts, ideas, and feelings with others.  This includes both the structure (grammar and rules) and the content (vocabulary and meaning) of our expressions.

Social Skills


Using language for different purposes, such as; greeting, informing, and requesting.

Changing language according to the needs of a listener or situation.

Following rules for conversations and storytelling, such as understanding and use of nonverbal communication, turn taking, and initiating and maintaining topics.

Literacy Development

 You start to learn language from the day you are born. You learn to use language to express your feelings and communicate with others. During early speech and language development, you learn skills that are important to the development of literacy.Literacy is a person's ability to read and write. Reading and writing are important to help function in school, on the job, and in society.  

When to Seek Help...

Speech Sound Disorder


  • Says p, b, m, h, and w incorrectly in words most of the time (1–2 years)
  • Says k, g, f, t, d, and n incorrectly in words most of the time (2–3 years)
  • Produces speech that is unclear, even to familiar people (2–3 years)

Language Disorder


  • Doesn't smile or interact with others (birth–3 months)
  • Doesn't babble (4–7 months)
  • Makes few sounds (7–12 months)
  • Does not use gestures (e.g., waving, pointing) (7–12 months)
  • Doesn't understand what others say (7 months–2 years)
  • Says only a few words (12–18 months)
  • Doesn't put words together to make sentences (1½–2 years)
  • Says fewer than 50 words (2 years)
  • Has trouble playing and talking with other children (2–3 years)
  • Has problems with early reading and writing skills—for example, may not show an interest in books or drawing (2½–3 years) 



  • Struggles to say sounds or words (2½–3 years)
  • Repeats first sounds of words—"b-b-b-ball" for "ball" (2½–3 years)
  • Pauses a lot while talking (2½–3 years)
  • Stretches sounds out—"f-f-f-f-farm" for "farm" (2½–3 years)

Voice Disorder


  • Uses a hoarse or breathy voice
  • Uses a nasal-sounding voice

Hearing Loss


  • Shows lack of attention to sounds (birth–1 year)
  • Doesn't respond when you call his/her name (7 months–1 year)
  • Doesn't follow simple directions (1–2 years)
  • Shows delays in speech and language development (birth–3 years)

Information adapted from www.asha.org

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